Duplex stainless steels are extremely corrosion resistant, work hardenable alloys. Duplex stainless steel plate contains relatively high levels of chromium (between 18% and 28%) and low to moderate amounts of nickel (between 1.5% and 8%). The high corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties of duplex stainless steels can be attributed to their chemical composition and balanced (duplex) microstructure of approximately equal volume percentages of ferrite and austenite. Because of this duplex nature, it will display properties characteristic of both austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. Duplex stainless steels are in most cases, tougher than ferritic stainless steels. Strengths of duplex stainless steels can in some cases be double that for austenitic stainless steels.Due to their high strength and corrosion resistance properties, Duplex Stainless Steels are used in a variety of applications such as:
|Thickness||0-1 mm, 1-2 mm|
|Size (feet X feet)||Standard|
Deriving the Duplex name from the presence of both Austenite and Ferrite in similar proportions, Duplex Stainless Steels combine excellent corrosion resistance with high strength. The typical mechanical properties would be double that of a single phase austenitic grade such as 316, while, for example, offering superior stress corrosion cracking resistance in chloride solutions.
Duplex stainless steels are extremely corrosion resistant, work hardenable alloys. Their microstructures consist of a mixture of austenite and ferrite phases. As a result, duplex stainless steels display properties characteristic of both austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. This combination of properties can mean some compromise when compared with pure austenitic and pure ferritic grades.
Duplex steels are also magnetic, a property that can be used to easily differentiate them from common austenitic grades of stainless.
S31803 / S32205 Properties
Chemical Analysis (% max or range)
Duplex stainless steels are extremely corrosion resistant. They have high resistance to intergranular corrosion. Even in chloride and sulphide environments, duplex stainless steels exhibit very high resistance to stress corrosion cracking.
The super duplex grades are even more resistant to corrosion.
The high chromium content of duplex stainless steels that protects against corrosion, causes embrittlement at temperatures over about 300°C.
At low temperatures duplex stainless steels have better ductility than the ferritic and martensitic grades. Duplex grades can readily be used down to at least -50°C.
Fabrication of all stainless steels should be done only with tools dedicated to stainless steel materials. Tooling and work surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned before use. These precautions are necessary to avoid cross contamination of stainless steel by easily corroded metals that may discolour the surface of the fabricated product.
Although machinable, the high strengths of duplex stainless steels makes machining difficult. As an example, machining of 2205 is around 20% slower than for 304.
Machining can be enhanced by using the following rules:
~ Cutting edges must be kept sharp. Dull edges cause excess work hardening.
~ Cuts should be light but deep enough to prevent work hardening by riding on the surface of the material.
~ Chip breakers should be employed to assist in ensuring swarf remains clear of the work
~ Low thermal conductivity of austenitic alloys results in heat concentrating at the cutting edges. This means coolants and lubricants are necessary and must be used in large quantities.
Duplex stainless steels cannot be hardened by heat treatment. They can however be work hardened.
Solution treatment or annealing can be done by rapid cooling after heating to around 1100°C.
Duplex stainless steels have good weldability. All standard welding processes can be used. They are not quite as easily welded as the austenitic grades but low thermal expansion in duplex grades reduces distortion and residual stresses after welding. The recommended filler material for 2205 stainless steel is 2209.
|Unit Pipe Length||9 meter, 3 meter|
|Size||3/4 inch, 1/2 inch, 1 inch|